Lithium – Is this the wounder fuel?

Lithium What is it?

Lithium or Li is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal, it is the lightest metal and the lightest solid element. Like other alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive and flammable. Where to find it: Li never occurs freely in nature, but only in compounds, such as pegmatitic minerals.

Lithium and its compounds have several industrial applications, including heat-resistant glass and ceramics, lithium grease lubricants, flux additives for iron, steel and aluminium production, lithium batteries, and most importantly lithium-ion batteries.

Demand from EVs and Stored Energy

EV global sales are currently around 0.85% market share, and are expect this to grow to around 5% market share by the end of 2020. That equates to an increase from around 774,000 sales in 2016 to around 4.5m sales globally in the year 2020. If we assume the average electric car will have a 50kWh battery then each car will require about 40kgs of lithium. So by 2020 4.5m cars will require 180,000 tonnes of lithium carbonate. Adding to this will be lithium demand from electric buses, electric bikes, and electric trucks. In 2016 China demand for electric buses was 115,000 units. China has over 200m electric bikes (as of 2014) that can be converted to lithium-ion batteries from lead acid. Of note the Chinese e-bike numbers increased 1,000-fold in the 15 years prior to 2014).

In 2016 energy storage installations grew 100% in the US. Lithium-ion batteries represented at least 97 percent of all energy storage capacity deployed in 2016. China plans to raise its power storage capacity by ten-foldto 14.5 gigawatts by 2020 (from 2016 levels). Citigroup forecast that the global energy storage market will be greater than $400 billion by 2030 from around 130m in 2015, or a growth of a staggering 3,077 fold in just 15 years. These figures are excluding car batteries. Energy storage has the potential to overtake lithium demand for EVs.

Demand Curve

The summary above suggests that total lithium demand should increase around 2.2 fold between now and end 2020. At end 2016 total lithium demand stood around 212ktpa. By end 2020 my model based on the above discussed assumptions has lithium demand forecast to be 478ktpa.

Lithium supply is increasing slowly due to difficulties in creating a new mine. Supply should be able to keep up with demand with some short periods of both undersupply (2016/2017) and oversupply (2019) based on my model forecasts. This should ensure that the lithium price remains mostly above US 10,000/t for lithium carbonate. The current contract prices are between US$10,000-15,000, with spot and lithium hydroxide prices higher especially in China.

Where does Lithium come from?

An Australian company Orocobre is a major player and they project solid growth in demand. See Orocobre site and produce this handy graph


Which stock to own?

Lithium producers are a small bunch or small cap miners, an asset class not know for its stability and openness. Tread carefully!

The top five are:

Albemarle (NYSE:ALB)

I choose Albemarle in my top 5 as they have world-class lithium assets and are the global leader in lithium production (with Sociedad Química y Minera de Chile (NYSE:SQM)), currently producing around 65ktpa of lithium carbonate equivalent (LCE). That production volume represents about 30% of the lithium supply globally, making Albemarle a lithium superpower. Whilst not a pure play lithium miner they are quickly increasing their percentage of both revenues and net income from lithium (currently 17.7% of their revenues and 27% of net income). Importantly I expect Albemarle to achieve stronger lithium pricing contracts going forward as they have lagged their peer in pricing until now. Added to stronger pricing is a rising production profile going forward as they expand both Atacama (Chile) and Greenbushes (Western Australia). Both of these mines are currently the lower cost leaders for brine and spodumene respectively. They also have the only producing lithium mine in America, albeit a small lower grade production from Silver Peak in Clayton Valley Nevada (not too far from the Tesla gigafactory). Their other revenue comes from a wide variety of other chemicals (bromine), petroleum refining, packaging, transportation, pharmaceuticals, and crop production. This adds some diversification to their ever-expanding revenue streams.


Orocobre are an Australian lithium miner with their flagship project being the Olaroz lithium brine mine in Argentina, where they hold a 66.5% interest, and are the operator.

I choose Orocobre as they are currently very well priced after recent heavy falls due to missing their FY 2017 production targets. I also like that they are a pure play lithium brine low-cost producer, with plans to double production in the next 2-3 years, as well as expanding with a lithium hydroxide plant in Japan. Due to missing production targets the market is very down on the stock right now, which I feel is overdone. Orocobre do have several ex-SQM employees onboard so they should be able to correct their teething production issues with their ponds and plant.

Galaxy Resources (ASX:GXY) (OTCPK:GALXF)

Galaxy is chosen as it is a current producer with a rising production profile. They have 3 lithium projects on 3 different continents and are diversified across brine and spodumene. Management under Anthony Tse are doing an excellent job.

Mt Cattlin (Australia) lithium spodumene mine is currently producing around 14kt per month (targeting 160ktpa in 2017) of spodumene and set to ramp to nameplate of around 250ktpa assuming they can achieve strong lithium recoveries and low mica (lithium waste) content. So far things are looking very good. Off-take for 2017 is locked in at US$905/t for 6% spodumene, making Mt Cattlin a cash cow, that will almost entirely fund their Argentina project capex (along with some debt funding). The mine is 100% owned by Galaxy.

Sal de Vida (Argentina) is a very large, world-class, low-cost, lithium brine asset owned 100% by Galaxy. This is their flagship project. Resource size is excellent with a total indicated, measured and inferred resource of 7.223mt LCE at 753 mg/L. This makes Sal de Vida one of the largest LCE resources globally. Chemistry is excellent with very low magnesium and low sulphate concentrations. This helps to lower the cost of production.

James Bay (Canada) lithium spodumene project is well located in Quebec with a solid size and quality resource, close to infrastructure. If gives Galaxy a North American supply source and further optionality of supply.

Lithium Americas (TSX:LAC) (OTCQX:LACDF)

I choose Lithium Americas in my top 5 as they are currently a very well valued junior, largely de-risked, and a likely producer (with SQM JV) by 2019. Lithium Americas own 50% of the their Cauchari-Olaroz lithium brine project in Argentina, with 50% partner SQM. The asset is world-class and Cauchari-Olaroz is the 3rd largest lithium brine deposit in the world (see chart below and red dot). Their 2012 NI 43-101 compliant resources for Cauchari-Olaroz were an indicated 8.7 million tonnes lithium carbonate at a lithium grade of 666 mg/L. Impurity levels are relatively low, with potash as a valuable bi-product.


I choose Lithium X as they have 2 quality brine assets in Argentina, some Clayton Valley brine, a brilliant managing director in Paul Matysek, and are extremely well valued in my view. Higher risk than those discussed above, but also higher reward.

The two Argentine salars are the Sal de Los Angeles (SDLA) and the recently acquired Arizaro salar. Both are owned 100%. At Sal de Los Angeles they are currently working on their PFS and pilot ponds, with plans to do their FS in Q1 2018, then full production of 15ktpa by Q2 2019. They are planning to move very fast indeed, working on several projects concurrently.

In their historical 2011 PEA (not to be relied upon) for Sal de Los Angeles, based on very low lithium carbonate prices of USD 5,000/t, the pre‐tax 8%NPV estimate was US$964 million, along with a pre‐tax IRR of 36%. However at $8,000-10,000/t, the corresponding pre-tax NPV8 would range between $1,450M and $1,850M. Given the current market cap of a mere US$88m, the stock has enormous upside potential. I don’t believe the market has reacted to the recent Arizaro purchase, and does not yet see the huge potential. Matysek commented that the their two Argentine salars could share the one processing plant which is another big factor not yet appreciated by the market.

Their director Paul Matysek has taken several start-up mining companies from nothing to something special (multi-million dollars) within short time frames, and has an incredible track record of success.

One more to consider:

Advantage Lithium (CVE:AAL) (OTCQX:AVLIF)

Advantage Lithium is a micro-cap stock. Micro-cap stocks have market capitalizations between 50 and 300 million. The big risks with Micro-cap stocks is the lack of information available, possible bankruptcy, and low liquidity. Warning: It is possible that you will lose your investment on these stocks.

An updated resource estimate and PEA (Preliminary Economic Assessment) is due Q1 2018. Updates with drill results are also expected every few weeks through early 2018. These catalysts will be good for the stock price. Advantage Lithium’s resource is now estimated at .47MT LCE, and I see that resource estimate increasing a minimum of 7X, to 3.4MT. Please see the analysis later in this article on how this was calculated.

Partnership With Orocobre

Orocobre has a fully operational lithium brine operation bordering Advantage Lithium’s property to the north. Orocobre owns a 35% stake in Advantage Lithium and is assisting in the development of their property.

Advantage’s board includes the CEO of Orocobre, Richard Seville, who brought Orocobre from a lithium exploration company to a fully operational lithium producer. Orocobre’s exploration manager Miguel Peral is also on Advantage’s board. He explored the resource at salar Olaroz, which Orocobre now is producing from.

Advantage CEO, David Sidoo explained the importance of this partnership in a recent interview:

Through our relationship with Orocobre we also have access to all the information they have about Cauchari as they have had a drilling presence there…Their technical knowledge is very important for us when it comes to deciding where we’re going to drill, what drilling contractor we use and other such things. That’s invaluable. Their knowledge in community relations and the technical knowhow for sourcing the brine and obtaining the lithium carbonate equivalent of 99.9 percent is very important. These guys have done it all before, and that background knowledge is invaluable when you’re looking at investing in a company that wants to be a new producer of lithium.

Because the lithium brine on Advantage’s property is of similar makeup to its neighbors, Advantage has the option to connect to Orocobre’s facility at Oraloz with a pipeline to start producing. The same should be possible with the Lithium Americas facility that is now in development, and also borders Advantage’s property. What this means is Advantage may not need to build their own production facility to become profitable; the biggest hurtle to overcome for a lithium exploration company. Instead of 400 million and 5 years to make a profit, they can spend 5 million and make a profit in 2019.

Interesting times for Lithium and investing in Li.

All Electric Joe now live in London

The days of old smelly Taxis in London may just be starting to end with the introduction of an all Electric Taxi.

The all Electric Taxi is now fit for purpose after TFL give it the thumbs up to operate on the city streets.

You may recall that the London Taxi firm was rescued by Geely, a Chinese venture after falling on hard times.

However, today marks a momentous milestone in the life of the London taxi: LEVC (London EV Company)’s all-new electric TX taxi is now fully certified to carry fare-paying passengers. For the first time Londoners will be able to ride through the city’s streets in incredible comfort with technology at their fingertips, safe in the knowledge that they are sitting in the world’s cleanest, most advanced taxi ever.

The new TX is a revolution for passengers who should expect unrivalled ride comfort, class leading wheelchair accessibility, air conditioning, phone charging and a much more spacious cabin with six seats. Features abound including wide opening rear hinged doors, power sockets for laptops, on-board wifi, contactless card machines and an expansive panoramic roof.

Chris Gubbey, CEO of the LEVC, said:After extensive testing, LEVC’s new taxi is ready to do the job it was made for: transport people around this great city of London safely, cleanly and stylishly. Better for passengers, more cost-effective for drivers, it will play a major role in helping to improve air quality benefiting all Londoners. I am immensely proud of the work we have carried out so far: we have produced a new icon, the world’s most advanced electric taxi.”

Having been put through the most rigorous testing regime in the company’s history, including extreme weather conditions in the Arctic Circle and Arizona, plus thousands of miles in the hands of real cab drivers in London, the new TX is ready to go to work – ahead of TfL’s January 2018 deadline when all newly licensed taxis need to be zero emission capable.

Shirley Rodrigues, Deputy Mayor for Environment and Energy, said: “These new electric taxis are at the forefront of green transport technology and will play a transformational role in the Mayor’s plan to phase out diesel and clean up the transport network. This will help to accelerate improvements to London’s toxic air.

“It’s great to have the first electric taxis on London’s streets and a testament to London’s leadership and that of LEVC. I look forward to seeing many more taxis on London’s street in the coming months”.

This landmark moment was celebrated at Circus West Village, the first phase of the Battersea Power Station regeneration, which is now open. The entire site has been designed to futureproof for a mass adoption of electric vehicles with the infrastructure for almost 1,000 electric charging points planned and the flexibility to increase that. The first 57 charging points are now available for use at Circus West Village. The Grade II* listed Power Station building and its surrounding areas is being transformed into a community of homes, shops, offices, restaurants and public space – a vibrant, new town centre for Londoners. Like the TX, both icons blend old and new and are being redesigned for 21st century living, and have a major role to play in the future London landscape.

ev taxi ev taxi at Battersea

All LEVC products use its eCity technology consisting of an advanced battery electric powertrain with a small back-up petrol generator. Applied to the all-new electric TX, the technology allows for a range of up to 400 miles including 80 miles pure electric range.

Unlike the previous taxi, the vehicle’s multi-filter system works to remove gases and particles from the incoming air. In addition, an in-built air quality sensor also automatically closes the external air intake if it detects increased levels of pollution in the outside air – protecting passengers, and the driver, from the capital’s often poor-quality air.

World-class active and passive safety systems will help to protect both the vehicle and other road users too. These include forward collision warnings, autonomous emergency breaking and emergency brake assistance, while the TX combines an extremely strong, rigid aluminium body shell with crash protection to the highest international standards, reinforcing the black cab trade’s reputation for safety.

Carl-Peter Forster, Chairman of the LEVC, said:There have been many milestones on this journey, from opening a brand-new factory in the heart of the UK – the first brand new automotive manufacturing facility in Britain for over a decade; the first dedicated electric vehicle factory in the UK – to today’s announcement that our new TX has passed all certification tests and is now able to carry fare-paying passengers. It will save drivers money, bring new levels of comfort and convenience to those who hail one and provide the safest and cleanest way of getting around a city by taxi. And this is just the start. We will deliver new TX models in Europe later in 2018 – and across the world. Our goal is to be the global, automotive leader in urban commercial vehicles. We are well on our way to achieving that.”

LEVC has received thousands expressions of interest in London for the new electric TX since order books opened on August 1st 2017 and the first electric TX models will arrive in the hands of drivers this month. The vehicle is currently available for test drive and those who have placed orders will start receiving their vehicles in due course.

Underpinned by an investment totalling £325m, LEVC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Geely, has the single-minded ambition to be the urban commercial vehicle provider of choice for cities across the globe. Its commercial vehicle strategy will see the new TX launched first followed by an electric LCV.

EVs only interest 1% of new car buyers reports What Car?

New report from What Car? suggests that EV remain a tiny share of the UK new car market.

As car magazines go What Car? is on the dull side of spectrum. But it does have a wide and large circulation.

what car page

Just one in 100 car buyers are actively looking at new electric vehicles despite the Government announcing an investment of over £500m in incentives and infrastructure, according to data released by What Car?

In the two weeks since Chancellor Philip Hammond caused mass confusion over the future of cleaner diesels in his Budget, analysis of new car enquiries by What Car? has shown no immediate downturn in consumer interest in diesels; a third (30%) are still considering the fuel type.

Mr Hammond also announced plans to extend the Government’s Plug-In Car Grant to 2020 – the equivalent of a £100m investment – and a further £400m to increase electric vehicle charging points.

But despite new car buyers being able to secure significant discounts in What Car?’s New Car Buying Marketplace of over 30% or £8,000 on electric models like the Nissan LEAF and over 40% on the Renault Zoe, two thirds of car buyers are still looking for petrol cars. Searches for the best deals on hybrids like the Toyota Prius on What Car? account for 8% of all dealer enquiries.

From April 2018, the Government intends to increase taxation on new diesel cars from April 2018, unless they meet a new standard called Real Driving Emissions, Step 2 – a certification that does not come into force until 2020, meaning that no new cars will be able to prove they meet it. Smart move by Hammond to create confusion.

Steve Huntingford, editor of What Car?, explained: “Interest in electric vehicles is at an all-time high, with some excellent new cars on the market this year, greater range and shorter charging times than ever and some very attractive discounts available to tempt buyers.

“But the fact remains that the car-buying public is only at the start of the journey from switching from engine cars to electric ones – and until more people are convinced of the benefits of electric cars the Government should be trying to encourage people to move into newer, cleaner cars rather than punishing them for doing so with added taxes.

“Right now, it is clear the Government’s strategy to demonize the new, low-CO2 clean diesels rather than introduce a car scrappage scheme to take older, dirtier diesels off the road and protect the CO2 targets, is not having the impact the Chancellor wanted.”

What Car? should review a Tesla Model S to pick up some interest.

EV sales and stats for 2017 to date

Growing sales of EV globally

Recent EV report from JATO sheds light ton EV sales.

The adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) has accelerated as policymakers across the globe pass regulations to reduce emissions of air pollutants, according to the latest analysis by JATO Dynamics. 2017 represents a turning point in the adoption of electric cars, with sales in key regions increasing significantly.1 The industry is at an important moment in the development of the segment, with the majority of car brands placing various forms of electric vehicles at the heart of their future plans. As countries and cities strive to meet stringent emission targets, they are positioning electric vehicles as a possible route to a cleaner automotive future. Manufacturers are increasing their ranges in response and, as a result, consumers are more aware of the choices available.

Key EV markets

EV sales charts sales numbers

1 “Key regions” are defined as: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey, UK and the USA.


China’s ever-expanding car market is crucial to the future of the electric vehicle. If EVs become a realistic mainstream choice, a likely contributing factor will be the emphasis the Chinese market has placed on electric vehicle technology. Policymakers in the country are attempting to balance its rocketing demand for cars with the nation’s severe pollution problem. The Government has introduced policies to push EVs, such as car purchase restrictions in large cities and subsidies for domestically produced EVs and PHEVs. In a further development, global manufacturers are now entering the Chinese market, as fully electric vehicles will earn more credits than plug-in hybrids under the country’s new Carbon Credit Program, which will come into effect in 2019. As a result of this focus, Chinese manufacturers have prioritised the development and innovation of domestically produced electric vehicles.

EV sales charts sales markets

Consequently, China is now the biggest market in terms of volume, with 227,000 EVs sold through September. China has quickly taken the top spot as the world’s biggest EV market, rapidly outselling other more advanced markets such as the US and Europe. In comparison, it took decades for the country to outsell them on traditional internal combustion engines.

In turn, China’s focus on producing electric vehicles to solve its domestic emissions problem means it has led the way in the development of the technology. The Chinese automotive industry’s resulting leadership in the sector means the nation now has a chance to conquer global markets and rival its western counterparts. This is hugely significant, as internal combustion engines produced by China-based manufacturers have traditionally struggled to compete against western brands that have more experience and heritage in the sector. As a result, six of the top ten electric vehicle brands in key automotive markets through September 2017 are based in China. If the Chinese industry is able to produce EVs that are attractive to global consumers and are appropriately priced, the country’s car industry could certainly increase its share of the global market.

In contrast to China, demand for EVs in the USA has slowed down since a peak in 2016. The USA has a legacy of cheap oil and a consumer preference for vehicles with large gasoline engines. This preference is combined with the current administration’s stance on electric vehicles, which is manifesting itself in the proposed Republican bill that would cut tax credits that were introduced to incentivise EV sales. The US population is also more spread out than in other more densely populated markets, meaning issues of range anxiety still persist. The popularity of private taxi app services in the USA’s urban areas has also hindered the adoption of EVs in the nation’s cities. Amidst this climate, the US has experienced a slower rate of electric vehicle adoption when compared to other key markets.

Results in the US market have impacted the wider North American region, which is significantly behind Europe in terms of EV adoption. 67,000 electric vehicles were sold in the North American region, a modest increase of 21% on the same period last year. This can be attributed to a reluctance amongst consumers in the hugely significant US market to move away from gasoline vehicles.


EV sales charts sales

Europen EV Sales

Comparatively, there were 100,000 EV sales in Europe for the period January to September 2017, an increase of 42% when compared to the same period in 2016. Key markets such as the UK, Germany and France all showed positive growth in the category. The EU recently introduced WLTP, a test procedure that is more representative of real world driving than previous NEDC testing and is one element of a broader drive to tighten emission reduction rules. European nations such as the UK and France are proposing diesel bans as soon as 2040 and, on a local level, cities are taking action to reduce emissions; the UK city of Oxford recently proposed the world’s first no-emission zone. Within this context, it is unsurprising that eight of the top ten countries in terms of EV market penetration from January to September 2017 are European. The success of electric vehicles in Europe is driven by the combination of EU and national regulation, combined with local initiatives. Norway leads the world, with an EV market share of 16.6%, significantly ahead of the Netherlands in second position, where EVs have a market share of 1.4%. Of the biggest markets, France, Germany and the UK have an EV market share of 1.2%, 0.6% and 0.5% respectively.

Despite increasing consumer adoption of electric vehicles in the region, the European car industry has been built on the internal combustion engine, and this legacy has hindered electric vehicle innovation. As a result, European manufacturers are yet to establish wide enough EV ranges and consumer choice is limited. Renault, for example, has only two fully electric models, and only one of these, the Zoe, is a passenger car. Likewise, Volkswagen still does not have a dedicated electric vehicle, but instead offers electric versions of its existing models. However, with the fall in demand for diesel engines following the “dieselgate” scandal, and the negative publicity the fuel type has had, the well-established European brands are incentivised to advance electric car innovation and are investing in the technology’s future.

EV sales charts Europe

“The USA is currently standing out on a global level as its EV adoption rate is significantly behind other major markets in Europe and China. Nonetheless, regulations to penalise emissions are beginning to impact countries, and consumers are increasingly abandoning diesel vehicles following reputational issues and proposed bans. As a result, car manufacturers are prioritising the development of electric vehicles. The decline in diesel sales is a significant opportunity for electric cars to fill this gap. However, there are two key issues. Firstly, ranges in the segment are still limited, particularly in Europe, so consumer choice is not at the level needed for mass adoption. Secondly, consumer fears around driving range and performance still persist. The automotive industry is at a precipice – automotive manufacturers must invest in their electric offerings, whilst investment in infrastructure on a governmental level is needed, to provide the charging points and electrical capacity to cope with the mass adoption of EVs,” commented Felipe Munoz, Global Automotive Analyst at JATO Dynamics.

Nissan awarded honours at the second annual Carbuyer & Alphr Car Tech Awards.

Nisan wins EV award

Nissan received the ‘Innovation in Electric Vehicles’ Award not just for its all-electric models, but also for its work in developing EV infrastructure and driving wider improvements across the EV industry.

The Car Tech Awards judging panel commented;

“Electric vehicles are more in the public’s conscious than ever before and no mainstream manufacturer is doing more to grow the market and infrastructure than Nissan. The winner of our Innovation in EVs award not only builds the world’s best-selling electric car, but its wider thinking is remarkable. It’s planning a 20% increase in outdoor charging points in Europe, readying the second-generation Nissan LEAF and, perhaps most interestingly, working on bi-directional charging, a clever system allowing LEAF owners to draw power from the grid to charge their car and sell power back to the grid at peak times for others to use.”

EV Cable Green connector in Leaf

Alex Smith, managing director, Nissan Motor (GB) Ltd. added; “Since 2010, Nissan has led the charge for mass-market, electric vehicle adoption. We’ve proved the technology to consumers, supported charging infrastructure development and evolved EVs beyond transport into energy storage and connected services. With the second-generation Nissan LEAF arriving in 2018, we’re seeing unprecedented interest in our all-electric line-up. This is a very exciting time for the EV market.”

This latest recognition follows the newly-unveiled new Nissan LEAF already being presented with a CES Best of Innovationaward for Vehicle Intelligence and Self-Driving Technology and CES honouree for Tech for a Better World at the Consumer Electronics Show’s Best of Innovation awards.

Now in its second year, the Car Tech Awards is a celebration of the best in-car technology launched over the past 12 months, judged by experts from Carbuyer and Alphr. From driving assistance systems to safety innovations, the awards seek to deliver advice to car buyers on both technological advances and driver ‘must haves’: reliability, value for money and practicality.

In October, Nissan unveiled the all-new Nissan LEAF in Europe, the next generation of the best-selling zero-emissions electric vehicle. Embodying Nissan’s Intelligent Mobility vision, the new model has been reinvented to offer greater range (up to 235miles (NEDC) on a single charge), dynamic design, advanced driver assistance technologies and enhanced connectivity.

A unique version is on sale now in the UK – the new Nissan LEAF 2.ZERO limited edition. This version is the first model in Europe to be fully equipped with Nissan’s ProPILOT technology. Priced at £26,490 including Government Grant, cars will be delivered from the beginning of 2018.

Nisan UK Facts

  • Nissan Sunderland Plant produces the Nissan Qashqai, Juke, Infiniti Q30 and the 100% electric Nissan LEAF
  • Production of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles began in 2012
  • Total plant volume since 1986 stands at more than 9 million units with 80 per cent of production exported to over 100 markets worldwide
  • Total investment made and announced since then is over £4.0 billion
  • 507,436 units were produced at Sunderland plant in 2016
  • Employment in Nissan’s UK design studio (Paddington, London), technical centre (Cranfield Bedfordshire), manufacturing plant (Sunderland, Tyne and Wear) and sales and marketing operations (Maple Cross, Hertfordshire) now totals more than 8,000.
  • A further 28,000 jobs in Nissan’s UK supply chain and 4,000 in its UK dealer network takes the total British jobs supported by Nissan to more than 40,000